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  • Writer's pictureAdisorn O.


Updated: Feb 27, 2023

Earth-retaining structures are used to retain the soil inside the land boundary. The selection of retaining walls is based on several factors, such as the capacity of the underlying soil, cost, construction techniques, etc. Some major types of retaining walls are listed as follows:

Gravity walls

- Massive concrete gravity wall

- Cantilever wall (ordinary type, counterfort, and buttress)

- Gabion wall

- Crib wall

- Abutment

Embedded walls

Composite wall and other support systems

Externally vs. Internally Stabilized Systems

Analysis Method

The analysis of both types of walls relies on the external and internal stabilities of the wall system. External stability ensures that the system has enough safety against overturning and sliding. In contrast, internal stability ensures that the system is not broken by its material failure or shear failure of soil components.


Clayton et al., Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures, CRC Press, 2013



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